Explain the difference between internal and external evidence. How can each of these types of evidence be utilized for quality improvement in the clinical setting?
Your initial posting should be at least 400 words in length and utilize at least one scholarly source other than the textbook. Please reply to at least two classmates. Replies to classmates should be at least 200 words in length.
Write a fully developed and detailed APA essay addressing each of the following points/questions. There is no required word count; be sure to completely answer all the questions for each question in detail. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least one (1) source using citations in your essay. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page are required. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.
Conduct a literature search to select a quantitative research study related to the problem identified in Module 1 and conduct an initial critical appraisal. Respond to the overview questions for the critical appraisal of quantitative studies, including:
- Is this quantitative research report a case study, case control study, cohort study, randomized control trial or systematic review?
- Where does the study fall in the hierarchy of evidence in terms of reliability and risk of bias?
- Why was the study done? (Define the problem and purpose.)
- Were the steps of the study clearly identified?
- What was the sample size?
- Are the measurements of major variables reliable and valid? Explain.
- How were the data analyzed?
- Were there any untoward events during the conduct of the study?
- How do the results fit with previous research in the area? (This may be reflected in the literature review.)
- What does this research mean to clinical practice?
Additionally, be sure to include the rapid appraisal questions for the specific research design of the quantitative study that you have chosen. These can be found in Chapter 5 of the textbook (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).
This critical appraisal should be written in complete sentences (not just a numbered list) using APA format.
Provide a reference for the article according to APA format and a copy of the article.
Length: Clearly and fully answer all questions; attach a copy of the articleStructure: Include a title page and reference page in APA format. Your essay must include an introduction and a conclusion.References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. A minimum of one (1) scholarly source for the article is required for this assignment.Rubric: This assignment uses a rubric for scoring. Please review it as part of your assignment preparation and again prior to submission to ensure you have addressed its criteria at the highest level.
Expert Solution Preview
Internal and external evidence are two types of evidence that play a crucial role in the field of medicine, particularly in quality improvement in the clinical setting. Internal evidence refers to evidence that is derived from an individual clinician’s expertise and clinical experience. On the other hand, external evidence refers to evidence that is obtained from external sources such as research studies, literature, clinical guidelines, and expert opinions. This essay will explain the difference between internal and external evidence and discuss how each type of evidence can be utilized for quality improvement in the clinical setting.
Difference between internal and external evidence:
Internal evidence is based on an individual clinician’s knowledge, skills, and experience, as well as the context in which they practice. It encompasses the clinician’s ability to critically analyze patients’ symptoms and signs, interpret diagnostic tests, and make decisions about appropriate treatments. This type of evidence is usually obtained through years of practice and exposure to various patient cases. Internal evidence relies on the clinician’s personal judgment and expertise.
On the other hand, external evidence is derived from sources outside the individual clinician, such as research studies, clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, and expert opinions. It involves the use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) principles to gather, critically appraise, and apply research findings to clinical practice. External evidence provides healthcare professionals with current, credible, and scientifically valid information that can guide their decision-making process. This type of evidence is essential for clinical practice because it helps reduce bias, errors, and variations in care.
Utilization of internal and external evidence for quality improvement:
Both internal and external evidence play a vital role in quality improvement in the clinical setting. Internal evidence, based on a clinician’s expertise, is valuable in terms of individual patient management. Clinicians can use their experience and knowledge to tailor treatments and interventions to meet the specific needs of each patient. It helps in making informed decisions regarding the selection of appropriate diagnostic tests, medications, and procedures.
External evidence, on the other hand, provides healthcare professionals with a broader perspective. It allows clinicians to compare their clinical judgments and practices with the existing research and evidence. By relying on external evidence, healthcare professionals can ensure that their decisions are based on the best available scientific knowledge. External evidence also helps in standardizing care practices, reducing variations in care, promoting best practices, and enhancing patient outcomes.
In the clinical setting, both internal and external evidence can be utilized for quality improvement by integrating them into clinical decision support systems, implementing clinical guidelines and protocols, and using evidence-based practice (EBP) frameworks. Clinical decision support systems can incorporate external evidence, such as clinical guidelines and systematic reviews, to provide clinicians with real-time recommendations and alerts regarding patient care. This integration ensures that clinicians have access to up-to-date, evidence-based information at the point of care.
Furthermore, the utilization of internal and external evidence can also be facilitated through continuous professional development and education programs. These programs can help healthcare professionals stay updated with the latest research and evidence, develop critical appraisal skills, and enhance their understanding of EBM principles. By empowering healthcare professionals with the necessary tools and knowledge, internal and external evidence can be effectively integrated into clinical practice, leading to improved patient outcomes and quality of care.
In conclusion, internal and external evidence are two distinct types of evidence that are essential for quality improvement in the clinical setting. While internal evidence relies on an individual clinician’s expertise and experience, external evidence is derived from external sources such as research studies and clinical guidelines. Both types of evidence have their unique roles in clinical decision-making and can be utilized by integrating them into clinical decision support systems and implementing evidence-based practice frameworks. By incorporating internal and external evidence, healthcare professionals can enhance patient care, reduce variations in practice, and promote best practices based on the best available scientific knowledge.